<h2>Deliberate on language Hebrew</h2>
“Praising the word is like praising ourselves”
Deliberating on language Hebrew and rethinking the word as a producer of reality, both by suggesting or concealing strategies that help the critical analysis of it allows enriching the thinking and specifically improve the discernment.
Knowing different etymologies and word histories, observing and analyzing how the use of terms within dissimilar contexts causes a specific action, contributes to distinguish between the correct and incorrect use of the same.
In this article we will differentiate between different words that are often misused and therefore cause confusion and even, sometimes, bewilderment. We begin by explaining the Hebrew term for which we will help with etymology, ie with the legitimate origin of the word. The Hebrew term in Spanish, ivrí in Hebrew derives from the trilitera root, ain ע, bet ב, reish ר that gave origin to the verb laavór לעבור (to pass).
Within the Hebrew language there are patterns or matrices to put together the different words. In this case to the root was added at the end a letter iud י, which allowed the creation of the adjective ivrí עברי = Hebrew. With this adjective was qualified, the first patriarch of the Hebrew town called Avrám. It was Avram the first ivri, a Hebrew who crossed, passed, the Euphrates on leaving Ur and then the Tigris to reach Canaan. This adjective reappears in the Old Testament in the book of the prophet Jonah I, 9, when Jonah at the time of the strong storm responds to the interpellation of the sailors and to them to throw the lots and to have fallen the responsibility on the prophet, Assumes its identity with the following statement “ivrí anoji”, עברי אכוכי “Hebrew I am”.
Some historians such as Abraham Malamat in the anthology, “History of the Jewish People,” point out that the apyru term used in Egypt is the equivalent of hapíru or habiru frequently appeared in Akkadian records, specifically in documents found at the Mari, Nuzi, And in the letters of El Amarna dating from the fifteenth century BC
The term apíru pointed to different groups of forced laborers of foreign origin, mostly Semitic from Canaan among whom the Hebrews were probably included. That is, they establish a relationship between ivrí, hebreo, and apíru, hapíru, or habíru finding in all of them a phonological similarity.
As a first conclusion we would have that Hebrew is an adjective: the Hebrew people, but it is also the language spoken by that people and written almost entirely in the Old Testament (TaNaJ) *
The Jewish term comes from the name Judah, first son of the patriarch Jacób, who in turn prints his name on the kingdom of Judah when dividing the town in two administrations after the death of the king Solomón. Jewish is also an adjective and at the same time the denomination of a religion: Jewish religion, that is to say that Jewish is who professes or practices said religion.
Another term synonymous of Jewish and of Hebrew is Israelite. We can say that such a person practices the Jewish religion, is Jewish, is Hebrew, or is Israelite or that there is a newspaper called “Israelite World” In saying: the Israelites crossed the Red Sea, we are referring to the Jews, the Hebrews, To the people who observe the Mosaic law. On the other hand, in expressing: the Israelis decided to lift the strike we alluded to a nationality. Within Israel there are Israeli Christians, Israeli Israelis and Israeli Muslims.
We will now address the Ashkenazi and Sephardic terms and within them we will refer to the idish and ladino languages.
The word Ashkenaz is mentioned in the book of Bereshít, Genesis chapter X, 3 as the name of one of the towns and soon happened to be the name of the region of Central and Eastern Europe thus naming to the Jews that inhabited in those lands.
Sefarád is mentioned in the book of the prophet Ovid, Avdías, chapter I, 20 as the name of a land within the Old Testament. Within the Targum Ionathan * appears this term referring to Ispamia, the Spain of the antiquity.
Jews from Germany and Central and Eastern Europe are called Ashkenazis and those from Spain and Portugal who after their expulsion in 1492 and 1497 were spread by other countries like: Turkey, Greece, The Netherlands, Italy etc. are denominated Sefaradíes. Both Ashkenazi and Sephardi are badly called Russians and Turks respectively. The language spoken by the Ashkenazi was the Yiddish emerged in central Europe, approximately in the tenth century.
The majority of its syntax and vocabulary is of Germanic origin, although also its lexicon contains terms of Aramaic, Hebrew, Romance and Slavic origin. Its speakers, when seeing in the necessity to transcribe the language, resorted to the alphabet Or Hebrew, which was familiar to them. At the present time there are groups of orthodox Jews that communicate habitually in Yiddish, since they consider the Hebrew language like a sacred language exclusively for pragarias.
The Judezmo was the Language spoken by the Jewish communities that inhabited the Iberian peninsula until 1492 denominated sefaradíes as was previously mentioned. This language also called ladino or judeoespañol, in spite of deriving from the Spanish of Middle Evo also received important contributions of the Hebrew and soon of the Turkish and the Greek next to remarkable galicismos.
Fernando Lázaro Carreter, linguist and ex- director of the Real Academia Española wielded: “Praising the word is like praising ourselves, because the word is the basic material to understand the human,” also expressed that a good language helps us capture the world, and that greater expressive capacity implies a greater understanding and apprehension of things. A poor language causes an unfortunate thought.
TaNáJ: acronym that indicates its three parts: Torah, teaching, Neviím, prophets, and Ktuvím, written or hagiográficos. The Tanakh is composed of 24 books.
Targum Ionathán Translation of the Pentateuch or Torah, from Hebrew to Aramaic.